2014年10月11日 星期六

中共面臨的三大民主難題(1979、1989、1999)

西單民主牆事件 "Democracy Wall" Incident in 1979

↑西單民主牆
(Xidan Democracy Wall)
1978年,部份北京市民在西單民主牆上貼上大字報,提倡第五個現代化--政治民主化。翌年,公安局以違反四項基本原則、泄露機密、違反憲法和法律等的原因抓捕參與者,包括魏京生。(被拘審或逮捕:全國各地約 1,000 人)

In 1978, some Beijing residents put up big character posters advocating "fifth modernization" - democratization. In the next year, the activists were arrested and jailed, including Wei Jingsheng. The Public Security Bureau claimed that the activists had violated the Four Cardinal Principles, constitution and laws and disclose the state secrets. (Arrested: about 1,000 people across the country)

天安門事件 Tiananmen Incident in 1989

↑青年王維林用身體擋坦克
Wang Weilin stopped the tanks
天安門事件亦稱八九學運,學生和民眾紛紛參與示威遊行,要求政治改革和民主,運動之後獲得廣泛民眾支持,並且引發全國性的示威活動。強硬的中共最終出動解放軍血腥鎮壓,造成越千人死亡。事件中,領導人趙紫陽因同情學生被下台,而江澤民成為新的中共領袖。(死亡人數:約 200 - 6,000 人、受傷人數:約 7,000 - 10,000 人)

Bloody crackdown on protests and demonstrations by students and urban citizens to demand political reform and democracy. In the incident, pro-reform leader Zhao Ziyang was purged by CCP since he sympathized with the protested students. Jiang Zemin became the new CCP leader. (Deaths: 200 - 6,000、Injured: 7,000 - 10,000)

法輪功事件 Suppression of Falun Gong since 1999 

↑法輪功學員在天安門廣場被逮捕
The Falun Gong member was arrested
in Tiananmen Square
法輪功成立於1992年,是一個倡導氣功練習的組織。1996年,在中國大陸很有影響力的報章《光明日報》發表評論,將法輪功主要書籍《轉法輪》描繪成封建迷信,事件引發法輪功學員示威抗議。1999年,超過10,000名法輪功學員到北京上訪,除了抗議《光明日報》的不公正報導外,亦要求結束中國公安對學員的騷擾。這場示威是天安門事件十年來,中國政府遭遇到的最大規模的示威,江澤民對此震怒,要求對法輪功開展鐵腕鎮壓。

Falun Gong, a qigong (internal energy mobilization) exercise society formed in 1992, was declared a "cult organization" and banned by the Chinese government after some 10,000 of its members surrounded the headquarters of CCP to protest against "unfair" report by the Guangming Daily about the organization. It was the largest demonstration after the ten years of Tiananmen Incident in China and made the CCP leader Jiang Zemin felt a lot of anger.

沒有留言:

張貼留言