2013年10月21日 星期一

五倫關係 Five Relationships of Confucianism

父子 Father and Son
  • 「身體髮膚,受之父母,不敢毀傷,孝之始也。」 《孝經》第一
    “The body, hair and skin, all have been received from the parents, and so one doesn’t dare damage them—that is the beginning of xiao” (Xiao Jing ch.1 )
     
  • 子曰:「孝子之事親也,居則致其敬,養則致其樂, 病則致其憂,喪則致其哀,祭則致其嚴。五者備矣,然後能事親。」《孝經》第十
    ‘The Master said, “This is how the xiao son serves his parents: during daily living he presents respect, when providing for them he presents happiness, during their illnesses he presents worry, during mourning he presents grief, when making offerings, he presents reverence. When he is prepared in these five things, then he is able to serve his parents.’ (Xiao Jing ch.10)
     
  • 子曰:「事父母幾諫,見志不從,又敬不違,勞而不怨。」《里仁》第十八
    The Master said, ‘In looking after one’s parents, one may need to give very mild advice to them. If it is not accepted, one should remain respectful and obedient. One may be worried, but will never complain.’ (The Analects 4.18)
     
  • 子曰:「父母在、不遠游、游必有方。 」 《里仁》第十九
    The Master said, 'While one’s parents are alive, one should not go abroad to a distance. If it is necessary to go abroad, there should be a fixed place to which one goes.' (The Analects 4.19)
     
  • 「立身行道, 揚名於後世,以顯父母, 孝之終也。 」《孝經》第一
    Establishing oneself, practicing The Way, spreading the fame of one’s name to posterity, so that one’s parents become renowned—that is the end of xiao. (Xiao Jing ch.1 )

夫婦 Husband and Wife

夫 Husband:
  1. 修身 Self-cultivation
  2. 齊家 Getting married
  3. 治國 Governing the state
  4. 平天下 Bringing peace to the world

婦 Wife:

三從 3 Submissiveness
  1. 未嫁從父 be submissive to father before marriage
  2. 出嫁從夫 be submissive to husband after marriage
  3. 夫死從子 be submissive to the son as a widow
四德 4 Self-refinement
  1. 婦德 moral conduct
  2. 婦言 utterance
  3. 婦容 appearance
  4. 婦功 workmanship

兄弟 Elder and Younger Brothers
  • 子曰:「弟子入則孝,出則弟 。」 《學而》第六
    The Master said, 'A youth, when at home, should be filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders.’ (The Analects 1.6) 

朋友 Friend and Friend
  • 「有朋自遠方來,不亦樂乎 ?」《學而》第一
    ‘How happy we are, to meet friends from afar! ‘ (1.1)
  • 「…朋友數,斯疏矣。」《里仁》第二十六
    “To be demanding with one’s friends will mean distancing.” (4.26)
  • 「友直,友諒,友多聞」《季氏》第四
    The Master said, ‘Friendship with the upright; friendship with the sincere; and friendship with the man of much observation’ (16.4) 

君臣 Ruler and Subject
  • 子曰:「君子之事上也,進思盡忠,退思補過,將順其美, 匡救其惡。,故上下能相親也。 」 《孝經》第十七
    “The Master said, “When a gentleman serves his superiors, in advancing he thinks of fulfilling duty to the utmost, in retreating he thinks of remedying errors. He supports and helps along the good, and corrects and lessens the consequences of the bad. Therefore the superior and the inferior can be close with each other.” (Xiao Jing ch.17) 

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